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A consumer is a person who
avails services and purchases goods for their own use and not for reselling
those goods. Consumer Protection is the act of safeguarding the rights of the
buyers/consumers of those goods and services. It provides protection to the
consumers from frauds and damaged goods. It also helps the consumers to file
complaints and make the process of the trail fast.

Consumer Protection Act to be implemented from July 20; here's how ...

For safeguarding the rights of
the consumer, the Consumer Protection Act 1986 was introduced. The act aims to
provide easy and fast compensation to consumer grievances. This act also
encourages the consumers to stand up and fearlessly speak up against the
damaged goods and flawed services. This act deals with all the goods and
services of public, private, or cooperative sectors, except those which are
exempted by the central government.

The act provides certain
rights and responsibilities of the consumers. The Rights of the Consumers are –
Right to Safety, Right to Choose, Right to be Informed, Right to Consumer
Education, Right to be Heard, Right to Seek Compensation. The Responsibilities of the Consumer are –
Responsibility to be Aware, Responsibility to Think Independently, Responsibility
to Speak Out, Responsibility to Complain, Responsibility to be an Ethical

Under this act, every district
has at least a consumer court or a consumer redressal forum. Above the district
forums, there are state commissions. At the topmost level is the National Consumer
Disputes Redressal Commission in New Delhi. These consumer courts are given a
wide range of powers to enforce their orders. The courts have the power to
decide the matter in the absence of the defaulter. These forums can issue
warrants and use the police to produce the defaulter and to impose its
decision. The defaulter can be sentenced to a maximum of 3 years of imprisonment
and fined for the amount of Rs 10,000.


The Consumer Protection Act
2019 is a replacement for the Consumer Protection Act 1986. The Consumer
Protection Bill 2019 was introduced in the Lok Sabha on 8 July 2019 by the
Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, Ram Vilas Paswan. The
bill was passed by Lok Sabha on 30 July 2019 and was later passed in Rajya
Sabha on 6 August 2019.

The aim of the act is to
ensure that the rights of the consumers are secured by the establishment of the
authorities for effective and speedy settlement of the consumer’s disputes. It provides
strict penalties, including jail term for adulteration and misleading advertisements by firms.


1. This act proposes the
establishment of the Central Consumer Protection Authority. This authority will
have the power to regulate cases related to unfair trade practices, misleading
advertisements, and violation of consumer rights. They also have the power to
penalise the violators, order them to refund for the damage, or to withdraw
their services.

2. It has established a
simpler way for dispute resolution, has provisions for mediation and e-filing
of cases. It also allows the consumer to file their complaints in the nearest
commission from their residence. There also no need to hire lawyers to
represent the cases of the consumers.

3. In case of misleading
advertisements, there is a provision for jail term and fine for manufacturers. The
celebrities, who are found to endorse the brands that provide misleading
advertisements, will be banned from products endorsements.

4. It is for the first time
that a law dealing with Product Liability. The manufacturer or the product service
provider or the product seller shall now be held responsible to compensate for
the injury or damage caused by the damaged goods and flawed services.

5. The act also deals with
businesses that are owned by the public and private sectors. It also deals with
businesses that provide services and goods either offline or online.


For the offence committed for
the first time, the defaulter is penalised with an imprisonment of 6 months or
fine upto Rs 1 lakh, in case the consumer does not suffer any injury. In case
the consumer is injured, the term for the imprisonment is upto 7 years and the
fine is upto Rs 5 lakh. In case of the death of the consumer, the defaulter has
to pay a minimum of Rs 10 lakh as a fine and has to face imprisonment for 7
years which can be extended to life imprisonment.

In case of misleading
advertisements, the manufacturer or the endorser of the brand is penalised for
the fine of upto Rs 10 lakh and imprisonment for upto 2 years.

In case of repeated offence,
the defaulter may be fined for the amount of Rs 50 lakh and imprisonment of
upto 5 years. 

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