The Green Revolution in India

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The great increase in production of food grains(like rice and wheat) due to the introduction of high yielding varieties,to the use of pesticides, and to bettter management techniques is known as the Green Revolution in India.
A part of a larger initiative by Norman Borlaug, green revolution in India was founded by M.S Swaminathan. The aim was to increase agricultural productivity in the developing world with the use of technology and agricultural research. The Green Revolution started in 1965 with the first introduction of High yielding variety(HYV)seeds in Indian agriculture. The end result of the Green Revolution was to make India self sufficient when it came to food grains. The Green Revolution in India was first introduced in Punjab in the late 1960s as a part of a development program issued by international donor agencies and the government of India. During the British Raj, India’s grain economy hinged on a unilateral relation of exploitation. The Green Revolution resulted in increased production of food grains (especially wheatand rice) and was in large part due to the introduction into developing countries of new, high-yielding varieties, beginning in the mid-20th century with Borlaug’s work. Borlaug developed a short-stemmed (“dwarf”) strain of wheat that increased crop yields. Previously, taller wheat varieties would break under the weight of the heads if production was increased by chemical fertilizers. Borlaug’s short-stemmed wheat could withstand the increased weight of fertilized heads.Wheat production in Mexico multiplied threefold owing to this and other varieties.Following Borlaug’s success in Mexico, the Indian and Pakistani goverments requested his assistance. Borlaug began his agricultural revolution in Asia. With India and Pakistan facing food shortages due to rapid population growth, the importation of Borlaug’s dwarf wheat in the mid-1960s was a key element if Green Revolution in India and helped the country to become agriculturally self sufficient.

What are the main features of Green Revolution?
1) Introduction of new and high yielding variety of seeds
2) Increased use of fertilizers, pesticides and weedicides to reduce agricultural losses.
3) Increased application of fertilisers to enhance agricultural productivity.
4) Use of latest agricultural machinery like tractors, threshers and harvesters etc.
5) Use of disease resistant varieties so that production will enhance.

Pros and cons of Green Revolution
1) increase in agricultural production
2) reduction in import of food grains
3) increase quality of food
4) increase tolerance to pests, diseases and weeds
5) prosperity of farmers and helps in rural employment
1) expensive seeds
2) ecological problems like soil erosion, waterlogging, desertification etc.
3) creates lack of biodiversity
4) health impacts from increased pesticides and fertilisers
5) deforestation

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